Jeep Grand Cherokee

1993-1999 of release

Repair and operation of the car



Jeep Grand Cherokee
+ Cars of the Jeep Grand Cherokee brand
+ Settings and routine maintenance
+ Line six-cylinder engine
+ V8 engine
+ Procedures of the general and capital repairs of the engine
+ Cooling systems, heating and air conditioning
+ A power supply system and production of the fulfilled gases
+ System of electric equipment of the engine
+ Systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases and engine management
+ Manual box of gear shifting
+ Automatic transmission
+ Transfer case
+ Coupling and transmission line
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ System of onboard electric equipment
- Governing bodies and methods of operation
   Acquaintance to the car
   Start of the engine and driving
   Dashboard and equipment of salon
   Towage of the trailer
   Emergency towage of the car
   Towage of the car for the purpose of start of the engine



Start of the engine and driving

Provisions of the cylinder of the lock of ignition

Do not turn the ignition key in position of LOCK at all and take it from the lock to a full stop of the car. Blocking the helmsman of a column can lead to creation of an emergency! In case of need switching off of ignition during the movement turn a key in position of OFF.

Do not nestle during start of the engine on a steering wheel - if forward wheels of the car of a wheel were left turned, the wheel can sharply move and injure hands or a thorax!

The ignition lock cylinder by means of a key can is turned in one of five provisions (see an illustration).

The turn of a key in position of LOCK blocks the switch of ignition and a steering column. On models to AT besides there is a blocking of the lever of the selector of transfers in situation P.

In position of OFF there is an unblocking of a steering column and management of AT. the engine at the same time remains not started.

The key has to hold position ON/RUN at the working engine.

For start of the engine a starter the key should be turned in situation START. As soon as start it is successful to come to the end a key it has to be immediately released in position of ON.

The turn of a key in the provision of ASS provides giving of food on consumers of the electric power at the killed engine.

Opening of a driver's door at the ignition key left in the lock leads to the inclusion of an alarm buzzer reminding to the driver of need to take out a key.

Blocking the helmsman of a column can interfere with turning of a steering wheel and key in the lock. For release of a key sharply pull a steering wheel in the same party where forward wheels of the car are turned, at the same time turning a key towards position of OFF.

Start of the engine

General information

Normal start of the engine (cold or heated-up) has to be made without squeezing of the accelerator pedal. Turn the ignition key in situation START after the engine is started release. If within 10 seconds of start does not occur, turn a key in position of OFF, wait about 5 seconds and repeat attempt.

If attempts to make start are not crowned in the usual way with success, perhaps there was a carburetor flood. Squeeze out the accelerator pedal to a floor and, holding it in this situation, turn the engine a starter - at the same time there has to be a removal of excess fuel.

In order to avoid failure of a starter do not turn them the engine continuously more than 15 seconds in a row. Pauses between attempts have to make not less than 10 ÷ of 15 seconds.

The filled-in engine can successfully be started, however will not develop the full capacity sufficient for continuation of its work at a key otpuskaniye. In that case continue attempts at completely squeezed out accelerator pedal. After turns of the started engine are stabilized release a pedal of an accelerator and the ignition key.

If the engine is not started after a 15-second provorachivaniye by a starter at the squeezed-out accelerator pedal, repeat attempt of normal start (see the item. "Normal start of the engine...").

Idling turns on the models equipped with system of multiposition injection of fuel are controlled automatically and will gradually decrease in process of warming up of the engine.

Avoid long single operation of the engine, especially on the raised turns - the excessive warming up of the fulfilled gases can lead to damage of the catalytic converter and other components of system of release. Do not leave the car with the working engine unguarded.

Electric heater of the block (additional complete set)

Do not forget to switch off before a start of motion a heater cord from the socket, to wind and to fix reliably on the regular place in a motive compartment!

Cooling liquid of the engine for the purpose of simplification of start of the last in cold weather allows to warm up the heater beforehand. The plug of the heater joins in standard 3-contact (with grounding) the socket of variable network with tension of 110 ÷ 115 Century.

The heater cord winded in a bay on 6-cylinder engines is usually fixed on a tube of ventilation of a crater. On V8 engines the bay of a cord is fixed in clips on a fan casing near the tank of system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel.

Start of motion and driving

Management of a manual box of gear shifting

Do not forget before leaving parked (especially on the inclined section of the road) the car to cock the parking brake. Always leave RKPP on transfer (that does not mean lack of need for raising of the parking brake).


Do not move under a bias on neutral transfer at all and the more so do not switch off at the same time ignition as at the same time it is easy to lose control and to create an emergency on the road!

RKPP is equipped with the sensor switch of interruption of a chain of a starter which is not allowing to make start of the engine at the coupling pedal which is not squeezed out against the stop.

Before including transfer completely squeeze out a coupling pedal. Include the first transfer and slowly release couplings, at the same time squeezing out gas.

You make gear shifting strictly in ascending order, without jumping through one. Begin the movement always with the first transfer. The scheme of provision of transfers is usually put on RKPP control lever handle. Casual inclusion instead of the first transfer of thirds at the time of a start of motion can lead to coupling damage.

In the conditions of rather intense city cycle need for use of the highest transfers arises extremely seldom. The fifth transfer is intended for movement along the highway with a high speed and does not allow to develop high acceleration. For inclusion of the fifth transfer give the lever to the right against the stop, overcoming spring resistance, then push it forward. For return from the fifth transfer on the fourth pull the lever one movement on yourself. There is no need to sharply move the lever to the left as at the same time by mistake it is possible to include instead of the fourth the second transfer that is fraught with damage of a box.

In order to avoid a premature exit of RKPP out of operation when driving it is necessary to follow some special rules:

  • Before switching from forward transfer on back (or on the contrary) wait for a full stop of the car. Premature inclusion of transfer is capable to lead to serious mechanical damages of the transmission.
  • Avoid the movement with high speed on the lower transfers. Such manner of driving can result in bystry wear of the transmission and damages of the engine.
  • Try to switch transfers smoothly, without allowing a gnash. In order to avoid damage of the engine or transmission you do not pass to lower transfer until the speed of the car is not dumped to the acceptable value.
  • Try to take away completely a leg from a coupling pedal during the movement or during the operation of the engine on single turns. Such manner of driving is fraught with a premature exit of coupling out of operation as a result of an overheat.
  • Do not forget that the movement with a speed, excessively low for the chosen transfer, is fraught with an engine overheat.
  • Do not use coupling for keeping of the car not movably on the inclined section of the road at all - coupling will quickly be past repair.
  • In order to avoid damage of transmission at gear shifting completely squeeze out a coupling pedal.
  • In order to avoid damages of the transmission line try not to allow too bystry provorachivaniye of wheels (more than 24 km/h (15 miles/h) in attempts to shift from the place the starting slipping car by switching from forward transfer on back and back.

In instrument brushes of models with RKPP the special control lamp warning the driver at dispersal of the car about need of switching to the transfer following one after another is built in.

Management of automatic transmission

At the AT lever which is not transferred to situation P the parked car is not insured from rolling under a bias. Before leaving the car check reliability of fixing of the lever in situation P for what pull the lever back and forth without squeezing out the button on its handle. Do not forget to cock the parking brake also!

The index on the display panel of the selector of transfers informs the driver on the chosen provision of AT. In night-time the indicator is highlighted.
The gear shifting selector lever with the display panel.

To begin the movement the lever of the selector of transfers should be transferred from situation N to one of working provisions (1, 2, D, OD or R, depending on an objective). Press the button sideways on the handle and switch the lever to required position. Do not force engine turns at AT conclusion from provisions of P or N.

Situation P is intended for the parking of the car. Its inclusion is made for the purpose of blocking of the transmission supplementing operation of the parking brake оп to keeping of the car not movably. Situation P is one of two in which start of the engine is possible (the second - N). Being going to leave the car, do not forget to cock also the parking brake, and do it before transferring to the provision of P AT as differently its lock can appear under loading (if the car is parked on the inclined section of the road) and switching of the lever it will be impossible.

Is switched by transfer of the lever of the selector to situation R AT to the reverse gear (reverse). Turning on of the reverse gear has to be made only after a full stop of the car.

Situation N is intended for the long parking of the car with the working engine. The stopped engine can be also started in this position of the lever of the selector. If necessary to leave the car with the transmission established in situation N do not forget to cock the parking brake.

The position of OD designated on the indicator by the letter of D placed in a round frame is intended for the movement in a city cycle and on the highway. Inclusion of the fourth (raising) transfer to AT is controlled by the electronic device. Machine translation of transmission in the OD mode comes from the mode D under following conditions:

  • The lever of the selector is installed in position of OD.
  • Cooling liquid of the engine reaches normal working temperature (only the V8 models).
  • Temperature of ATF reaches the normal working temperature (only 6-cylinder engines).
  • Speed of the movement of the car exceeds value close to 48 km/h (30 miles/h).
  • Not заактивирован O/D OFF switch.

Blocking of the OD mode can be made by means of the O/D OFF switch located on the dashboard. Activation of the switch is followed by inclusion of the control lamp located directly over it. When the lamp burns, the raising transfer is blocked. Repeated squeezing of the button of the switch restores the function OD Blocking of the Raising Transfer has to be made during towage of hard loaded trailer.
Location of the switch of blocking of the raising About / D OFF broadcast.

During the slow movement in the conditions of an intense city cycle or on the dangerous mountain road it is reasonable to increase efficiency of return of the engine by switching of AT in situation 2. At the same time a set of forward transfers of transmission is limited the first to two. Use this mode also during long rises and for braking of the car the engine on descents. You watch that the speed of the movement of the car in the mode 2 AT did not exceed value of 72 km/h (45 miles/h).

Situation 1 it is intended for selection from the engine of the maximum power during steep slopes or for braking by the engine at small speeds of the movement (less than 40 km/h (25 miles/h)). In order to avoid excess of admissible turns of the engine do not accelerate the car over the specified value of speed.

In order to avoid a premature exit of AT out of operation when driving it is necessary to follow some special rules:

  • Before bringing the lever of the selector of transfers out of situation P unblock it (and a steering column), having turned the ignition key in position of ON.
  • Do not force the engine at the involved brakes and the transmission included on transfer. Motionless on the inclined section of the road you make keeping of the car only by means of brakes. The neglect performance of these conditions can lead to a premature exit of transmission out of operation as a result of an overheat.
  • In order to avoid damages of the transmission line try not to allow too bystry provorachivaniye of wheels (more than 24 km/h (15 miles/h) in attempts to shift from the place the starting slipping car by switching from forward transfer on back and back.

The electronic system constantly traces ATF temperature. If temperature of transmission rises too highly, there is its automatic switching to the third transfer which is followed by inclusion of a control lamp of O/D OFF After ATF cools down transmission comes back to the normal mode of functioning.

The design of AT provides an additional possibility of economy of fuel consumption. Gearing of coupling with the converter of rotation happens automatically on reaching the car of a certain speed limit. At the same time there can be a little unusual feelings at normal functioning three on the highest transfer. When falling speed of the car, or during acceleration coupling is automatically and smoothly turned off.

Use quick information on a condition of the cooling system

The careless performer can be easily strongly scalded by the steam escaping from a radiator. If from under a cowl steam escapes, or suspicious hissing is heard, do not open a cowl before full cooling of the cooling system!

In the conditions of intense operation of the engine the cooling system can test overloads. Such situation is most typical during long rise uphill in hot weather, at a stop after a long trip, during long operation of the engine on single turns at hit in traffic jam, and also at towage of the trailer.

When the arrow of the measuring instrument of temperature of cooling liquid on an instrument guard comes into a red zone, or the control lamp of temperature joins, for example at hit of the car in a stopper, transfer transmission to neutral situation and switch off To/in if it was included.

When the arrow of the measuring instrument of temperature is in the top half of a scale of the indicator before suppressing the engine always let's it work within not less than a minute on single turns.

If within one or two minutes of the shooter of the measuring instrument does not fall / the control lamp does not die away, choose the safe place and park on it the car. Transfer the selector lever to the provision of P (AT) / choose neutral transfer (RKPP) and cock the parking brake. You do not suppress the engine and slightly lift its turns. Two-three minutes later dump turns to single again.

If temperature still did not fall, kill the engine. Lift a cowl check for existence of leaks a radiator and all its hoses, including overflow. Check a condition of driving belts. If the level of cooling liquid fell or the ventilatory belt failed, do not start the engine until the overheat cause is removed. The temporary overheat of cooling liquid at a stop after a long trip with a high speed of the movement should not cause concerns - about 10 minutes later temperature has to return to norm.

Principle of functioning of an electronic control system of the speed (tempostat)

Leaving темпостат included when need for it disappears dangerously! Unexpected operation of system after casual pressing of the button of the choice of cruiser speed can lead to loss of management and hit in an emergency! Without fail disconnect темпостат upon transition to manual control by speed.

At activation of a tempostat he undertakes function of management of acceleration, supporting by a constant the chosen cruiser speed of the movement of the car. Use of a tempostat becomes possible only at speeds of movement over 60 km/h (35 miles/h). Buttons of management tempostaty are located on a steering wheel and provide operation of ON/OFF switches (On/off), RESUME/ACCEL (Return to the chosen high-speed mode / Acceleration) and SET/DECEL (Installation / Deseleration).
Buttons of management tempostaty.

Activation of system is made by a single nazhimaniye on the ON/OFF switch button. Repeated squeezing of the button disconnects темпостат.

When need for system is absent, it should be disconnected.

Having dispersed to the required speed (over 60 km/h), once press the SET/DECEL button. Now the accelerator pedal can be released - темпостат will automatically support the chosen cruiser speed.

Easy squeezing of the accelerator pedal, and also use of brakes or coupling lead to shutdown темпостат without cleaning of his memory. In order that memory of system was is cleared it is necessary to disconnect темпостат the ON/OFF button.

For return to the cruiser speed chosen and brought in memory of a tempostat upon completion of the compelled acceleration or braking once press the RESUME/ACCEL button. Return can be made at any speed of the movement of the car over 50 km/h (30 miles/h).

By means of the same switch cruiser speed can be increased. At the included tempostat press the RESUME/ACCEL button and hold it pressed until the new required value of speed is reached. At a button otpuskaniye new cruiser speed will be the system which is written down in memory. The short nazhimaniye of the button leads to a speed gain on 3.2 km/h (2 miles/h). So that to receive a gain in 9.6 km/h (6 miles/h) it is necessary to squeeze out the button three times shortly.

Decrease in the tempostat of cruiser value of speed brought in memory is made by means of the SET/DECEL button. Hold the button of pressed, desirable new value will not be reached yet.

To make overtaking on the operated tempostaty car simply squeeze out the accelerator pedal as you do it in a usual situation. At a pedal otpuskaniye upon completion of overtaking the car will return to the chosen earlier cruiser speed.

During rise uphill more than 650 m high, and also when transporting heavy freights (in particular by towage of the trailer) the cruiser speed of the movement of the car supported tempostaty can fall slightly below the established value. When lowering the actual speed below a mark of 50 km/h (30 miles/h) the system is automatically disconnected. In this case it is necessary to use the accelerator pedal for restoration of the required high-speed mode.

In the model situations equipped with 5-staged RKPP described above have to cope on the 4th transfer. 4-staged AT can carry out up to several switchings with the 4th to the 3rd transfer. it is recommended to make blocking of the mode of the raising transfer for decrease in frequency of switchings and improvement of efficiency of return of the engine, having pressed the O/D OFF button.

At the movement uphill or under a bias the car can lose or gather respectively speed regardless of that is switched on темпостат or not. If the steepness of a slope allows the car to increase spontaneously speed, use a pedal of a foot brake. At the same time there will be an automatic shutdown of a control system of speed and delay of the movement. On the models equipped with RKPP when the chosen transfer is not capable to support more the high-speed mode which is actually taking place during rise uphill, switch on following one after another lower.

In order to avoid loss of control of management of the car do not use темпостат in the listed below situations:

  • When there is no physical capacity of the movement with the constant chosen speed.
  • At movement along the slippery road.
  • In the conditions of brisk traffic, and also on "serpentine" of mountain roads.

Principle of functioning of the transfer case of all-wheel drive models

Do not leave the transfer case of the parked car in neutral situation at all, previously without having cocked the parking brake! At the same time both bridges of the car are disconnected from the transmission line and the car is not insured from spontaneous rolling under a bias even at the transmission established on transfer.

Transfer case of the QUADRA-TRAC system (additional complete set)

The system of switching of the modes of the transfer case of models 4WD without a possibility of shutdown of the QUADRA-TRAC four-wheel drive provides three modes of its functioning - two workers and neutral.
Lever of the choice of the modes of the QUADRA-TRAC transfer case.

The mode of the raising transfer 4WD (4HI) is intended for usual use of the car in any road conditions.

Inclusion of the mode of the lowering transfer 4WD (4LO) allows to increase the traction force developed by the engine at a speed of movement not higher than 64 km/h (40 miles/h). For inclusion of the mode dump speed to value 3 ÷ 5 of km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/h), switch transmission to neutral situation, then smoothly and quickly transfer the lever of the choice of the modes of the transfer case to situation 4LO without delay on neutral. At return of the lever to the mode 4HI also do not detain him in neutral situation.

Do not make inclusion of the mode of the lowering transfer of the transfer case and an exit from it at a speed of the movement of the car over 3 ÷ of 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/h) at all!

In neutral situation the system disconnects the leading bridges of the car from the transmission line. In this situation towage of the car has to be made (see the Section Dashboard and the equipment of salon).

The graphic display of information center of the car (see the Section Dashboard and the equipment of salon) fixes the chosen mode of the transfer case. At the choice of the HI mode on the display all four wheels of the outline drawing of the car are highlighted. The LO mode is designated by highlighting of four wheels, in combination with the inscription LO on the screen. The lamp can blink shortly at the time of the translation of the lever from 4HI in 4LO, however when inclusion of the mode of the lowering transfer is complete, it has to burn continuously.

Incomplete switching of the lever of the choice of the modes leads to loss of the power developed by the engine and possible damage of the transfer case. Also the probability of loss of control of driving is not excluded. It is not necessary to begin the movement without having made sure of unambiguity of turning on of the transfer case!

Transfer case of the SELEC-TRAC system (additional complete set)

Do not turn on the SELEC-TRAC transfer case for a long time on the all-wheel drive mode at the movement on a dry hard coating. For simplification of inclusion of the all-wheel drive modes previously hand over the car on several meters the back, or curtail on a roadside with the loose covering providing a possibility of pro-slipping of wheels.

The system of switching of the modes of the transfer case of models 4WD with a possibility of shutdown of the SELEC-TRAC four-wheel drive provides five modes of its functioning: 2WD, 4h4 PART-TIME, 4h4 FULL-TIME, 4LO and neutral (N).
Lever of the choice of the modes of the SELEC-TRAC transfer case.

The choice made by the driver is reflected in the graphic display of information center (see the Section Dashboard and the equipment of salon). At inclusion of the mode 2WD on the outline drawing of the car only two back wheels are highlighted. In case of the choice of the all-wheel drive modes all four wheels, plus the inscription PART-TIME (Which is changeably included in the four-wheel drive) or FULL-TIME (Which is constantly included in the four-wheel drive) in case of the raising modes 4WD, or LO at the choice of the lowering mode 4LO are illuminated. Neutral position of the transfer case is not reflected in the display in any way.

The delay of inclusion of the all-wheel drive modes can speak unevenness of wear of protectors, low pressure of a rating of tires, and also cold weather.


Incomplete switching of the lever of the choice of the modes leads to loss of the power developed by the engine and possible damage of the transfer case. Also the probability of loss of control of driving is not excluded. It is not necessary to begin the movement without having made sure of unambiguity of turning on of the transfer case!

The mode of the raising transfer of 2WD is intended for movement along roads with a hard coating and provides maximum efficiency of fuel consumption.

Transfer of the lever to situation 4 x 4 PART-TIME provides turning on of the four-wheel drive in the changeable mode when emergence on the road of snow drifts or ices demands increase in reliability of coupling with the road. The mode is raising and does not provide an increment of traction effort. At the choice of this mode forward and back bridges are mechanically blocked with each other and rotate with an identical speed. It is not necessary to use the mode 4 x 4 PART-TIME at the movement on a dry paving. Inclusion of the mode can be made on the run at any allowed speed of the movement of the car - just transfer a control lever a box from situation 2WD to situation 4x4 PART-TIME.

Inclusion the mode 4x4 FULL-TIME allows to increase course stability of the car due to the best coupling with the road at the movement on a wet, slippery or snow-covered paving. The mode also belongs to raising. At its inclusion, unlike described higher than 4х4 PART-TIME, forward and back bridges rotate independently from each other that allows to increase maneuverability of the car considerably. Use of this mode is not forbidden in any road conditions. The translation of the transfer case from situation 2WD in situation 4x4 FULL-TIME it can be carried out at any speed-limit of the movement of the car. When translating a control lever of a box from situation 2WD in situation 4x4 FULL-TIME through 4x4 PART-TIME it can be necessary twice to release the accelerator pedal.

The mode of the four-wheel drive with decrease in the transfer relation of 4LO joins in need of a temporary increment of traction effort of the car at the movement on off road terrain with a small speed.

It is not necessary to include the mode 4LO on roads with a good covering! To include the mode 4LO the speed of the car has to be dumped to value 3 ÷ 5 of km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/h), and transmission is transferred to neutral situation.


Do not try to make inclusion of the mode 4LO at a speed of the movement of the car over 3 ÷ of 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/h) at all! It can lead to an exit of the transfer case out of operation.

Neutral position (N) of the transfer case is intended for emergency towage of the car (see the item. "In neutral situation...").

Transfer case of the COMMAND-TRAC system (additional complete set)

Increase in a noise background of the transfer case at inclusion it in the modes of the four-wheel drive should not cause concerns.

The transfer case of the COMMAND-TRAC system provides a possibility of changeable use of the four-wheel drive. At the same time forward and back bridges are mechanically blocked with each other and rotate with an identical speed. The system provides a possibility of inclusion of four operating modes of a box: 2WD, 4h4 PART-TIME, 4LO and neutral (N).
Lever of the choice of the modes of the transfer case.

On the graphic display of information center of the car (see the Section Dashboard and the equipment of salon) the chosen mode is displayed by illumination of wheels on the outline drawing of the car in combination with an explanatory inscription of the corresponding content.

The mode of the raising transfer of 2WD is intended for movement along roads with a hard coating and provides maximum efficiency of fuel consumption.

Transfer of the lever to situation 4x4 PART-TIME provides turning on of the four-wheel drive in the changeable mode when emergence on the road of snow drifts or ices demands increase in reliability of coupling with the road. The mode is raising and does not provide an increment of traction effort. It is not necessary to use the mode 4x4 PART-TIME at the movement on a dry paving. Inclusion of the mode can be made on the run at any allowed speed of the movement of the car - just transfer a control lever a box from situation 2WD to situation 4x4 PART-TIME.

The mode of the four-wheel drive with decrease in the transfer relation of 4LO joins in need of a temporary increment of traction effort of the car at the movement on off road terrain with a small speed.

It is not necessary to include the mode 4LO on roads with a good covering! To include the mode 4LO the speed of the car has to be dumped to value 3 ÷ 5 of km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/h), and transmission is transferred to neutral situation.


Do not try to make inclusion of the mode 4LO at a speed of the movement of the car over 3 ÷ of 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/h) at all! It can lead to an exit of the transfer case out of operation.

Zadny Bridge with system of automatic redistribution of loading in TRAC-LOCK differential (an additional complete set)

The system provides automatic change-over of differential of the back bridge when coupling of one of back wheels with the road is lost and it begins to revolve. As soon as such situation arises, the differential automatically redistributes loading, providing the maximum torque to that wheel which has the best coupling with the road.

The TRAC-LOCK system is capable to bring special benefit at the movement on a slippery paving. If on ice there are both back wheels, for ensuring the maximum coupling with the road will be to squeeze out the accelerator pedal slightly enough. When on a slippery surface there is only one of back wheels, useful will be an insignificant raising for very short time of the parking brake.

Principle of functioning of system of anti-blocking of brakes

"Swing" by a brake pedal during braking on the car equipped with ABS considerably reduces efficiency of functioning of the last and only increases a brake way! Just squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake and hold its pressed to a full stop of the car.


Functioning of ABS can lead to emergence of hindrances of reproduction of incorrectly connected the radio equipment and mobile phones.

ABS substantially increases safety of management of the car when braking on a slippery and unreliable paving, and also at any sharp braking. The system is equipped with the separate processor module of management operating hydraulic pressure in a brake contour for the purpose of prevention of premature blocking of any of wheels. The probability of loss of driving owing to a drift during sharp braking at the same time comes down to zero.

For a guarantee of serviceability of functioning of the module of management and adequacy of his teams to real conditions all wheels of the car and their tire have to be one standard size and are pumped up properly.

At a speed about 13 km/h (8 miles/h) ABS makes low-speed self-testing. During conducting this testing the pedal of a foot brake can pulse slightly that should not cause any concern.

The electric pump ABS turns on in time of performance by system of low-speed self-testing and also when ABS stops carrying out adjustment of hydraulic pressure. In operating time the pump publishes easy hum which it is also not necessary to be frightened.

At sharp braking there can be pulsations of a pedal of a foot brake and be distributed clicking. It is not necessary to pay attention to these symptoms - they are a sign of correct functioning of ABS.

Loss of coupling with a paving at the movement on the cross-country terrain can bring to temporary suspension of functioning of ABS and to inclusion of a control lamp on the dashboard. Again to put into operation system switch off and again include ignition.

Several councils for rules of driving of the all-wheel drive car

General information

For maximum efficiency of use of brakes and an accelerator it is necessary to remember some moments:

  • You do not hold a leg on a brake pedal during the movement - it can bring to an overheat of brake mechanisms and, as a result to increase in a brake way and failure of the brake system.
  • Avoid long use of brakes for control of the car during descent under a bias - it can lead to failure of brake mechanisms. It will be more correct to switch transmission to lower transfer, and on models with AT to resort to blocking of the mode of the raising transfer (the O/D OFF button - see above).
  • During an engine warming up its single turns are usually a little overestimated therefore at careless handling of the accelerator pedal during a start of motion driving wheels of the car can begin to be turned. Special attentiveness should be shown at the movement on slippery are expensive, during commission of maneuvers, and also at the parking of the car. Do not forget to include the all-wheel drive mode at deterioration of coupling of wheels with the road.
  • Try to observe always the speed of the movement, safe for specific road conditions. Do not forget about a possibility of education between wheels of the car and a paving of a water pillow when crossing pools at great speed. It is safer to move to rainy weather with the switched-on four-wheel drive.
  • After crossing of water barriers or departure from car wash it is necessary to dry brake mechanisms by commission of several braking at a small speed.

Movement along the route

Utility models differ from other passenger cars in the considerable road gleam allowing them to overcome freely many barriers which are found on the cross-country terrain. High landing provides also the best review to the driver. It is worth to remember however that at such design the center of gravity of the vehicle is located much above than usual models. Such cars are not intended for passing of turns at high speeds. Try to avoid whenever possible sharp maneuvers and in advance reduce speed at approach of turns. Violation of these requirements can lead to loss of management and a turning of the car.

Movement on the cross-country terrain

General information

Only all-wheel drive models are intended for movement on off road terrain. Movement on the cross-country terrain in the mode 2WD is admissible only in case of the sufficient durability and flatness of the soil. It is better to go to a distant trip two or more cars.


At the movement on the cross-country terrain not to do harm to the environment! Before leaving the camp parking clean up all garbage.

The movement on off road terrain demands from the driver of some special skills therefore try to treat with all responsibility studying of the material stated below.

Preparation for a congress from the route

The driver has to be confident in technical condition of the car. All knots and systems have to work regularly, and the car bottom reliably is protected (with installation of all provided filters). Check whether the spare wheel is pumped up properly, whether levels of all working liquids are normal. Make sure that were not going to drive in someone's private possession without special permission on that.

Order of loading of the car

The baggage laid above a back of a back seat during sharp braking can break from the place and injure the driver or passengers of the car! For the same reason it is necessary to take care of reliable fastening of freight. In order to avoid a car turning at the movement on the cross-country terrain try to lower the center of its weight as low as possible - put heavy objects on half of the luggage compartment, and not on the top luggage carrier at all. Try to shift freight in the luggage compartment as it is possible further forward!

The heaviest objects have to be laid on the floor of the luggage compartment in its forward part. Try to shift freight as it is possible further forward.

Take care of reliability of fixing of baggage.

Driving

At the movement on off road terrain jolting and breakthroughs are capable to throw out the driver from the place that is fraught with loss of management! In order to avoid it the driver and passengers have to be reliably fastened by seat belts.

Remember that absence on the cross-country terrain of other vehicles does not allow the driver to take the drunk wheel at all. Even the slightest loss of coordination at the movement on off road terrain can result in fatal result!

Before going to a distant trip around the cross-country terrain it will be quite good to practise a little as driving on off road terrain demands some special skills.

Prepare for perception and the analysis of an extensive range of the entering information. Eyes have to look through constantly the territory ahead of the car in search of barriers and ways of their round. Ears have to listen to the unusual sounds made by the engine, components of a suspension bracket and other knots and systems of the car. Hands, legs and a body have to damp pushes and vibration constantly.

Correctness of the choice of safe speed of the movement is the main key to a successful completion of a trip on off road terrain. The speed of the movement is less, the better the driver manages to consider obstacles and to choose roundabout ways. At the same time jolting decreases and there is bigger time for decision-making and performance of necessary maneuvers.

At the movement on the cross-country terrain the car can get to deep dirt, a grass, sand, snow, etc., to run into crushed stone and ice. The manner of driving and braking of the car in each of the listed cases has to be corrected as appropriate.

Different invisible obstacles hidden in a grass, dirt or sand can occur in the path. Not to lose driving the driver has to be constantly ready to arrival on such obstacles. Try to consider any external changes of a land relief and nature of the soil. Strong you hold a steering wheel.

At arrival on obstacles the car can come off wheels the earth. Even at a separation of one wheel it is rather easy to lose control - try to control the speed of the movement and avoid sharp pushes.

Avoid sharp changes of speed and the direction of the movement.

The movement on the area with a hilly relief

For safe movement on the hilly area in cross-country conditions it is important to be able to assess adequately a situation and to realize about vehicle opportunities. Some rises cannot be overcome regardless of a car design. If rise is too abrupt, then at its capture the engine will just decay. At the movement down it is easy for too abrupt descent to lose control. The attempt to move along a slope can lead to a car turning. It is better not to make attempts of overcoming such obstacles without having been sure absolutely of their successful completion.

Approach to a height

At approach to a height it is necessary first of all to try to estimate the steepness of her slope adequately. Remember that to top the steepness of a slope can closer raise that is not always visible from below in view of existence of vegetation.

First of all try to estimate uniformity of the steepness of a slope and durability of a surface of the soil on it. Consider an arrangement of obstacles. Be are ready to that behind the pass there can to be a break - it will be most correct to make pedestrian reconnaissance.

Rise

After the decision on need of overcoming a height is made, switch to the lowering transfer and strongly undertake a wheel.

Begin rise with smooth acceleration and try to hold the speed of the movement of a constant. In order to avoid pro-slipping of wheels try not to increase speed more, than it is really necessary. Whenever possible try to move in the most direct way to hill top - avoid changes of the direction of the movement.

The movement along a slope is dangerous, in view of the increased probability of a turning of the car!

As approaching top reduce the speed of the movement. For the notice of drivers of possible oncoming vehicles use driving beam of headlights or a sound signal. In the afternoon days it is expedient to fix a flag on the car.

Departure on the pass with a high speed is dangerous - on that side the break can settle down or be other vehicle!

If in the course of rise there is a situation when the engine becomes deaf or signs that it just about will decay appear exists certain list of what should be undertaken also what should not be undertaken. At first what has to be made:

  • Stop the car, having squeezed out loops of a foot brake. Cock the parking brake.
  • If the engine did not decay yet, switch transmission to the reverse gear, release the parking brake and slowly move down from a slope a backing.
  • If the engine decayed, it needs to be started again. Still without releasing a brake (foot and parking), switch transmission to the provision of P (AT) or choose neutral transfer (RKPP) and start the engine. Now include a reverse and go down from the hill a backing.
  • At the movement down a backing put the left hand on a steering wheel in situation for 12 hours that it was easier to control straightforwardness of the operated car wheels. The turn of the operated wheels increases chance of a turning of the car on a slope aside.

It is not necessary to take the following actions at all:

  • Do not try to prevent an engine stop by switching of AT in situation "N", or squeezings of coupling on models with RKPP - in this situation it will not work, on the contrary, the car can roll down down, sharply gathering speed that will lead to loss of management. Instead make the actions described in instructions of the item. "If in the course of rise...".
  • Do not try to make a turn when the engine of your car is close to a stop during rise uphill. If the slope is rather abrupt in order that the engine began to become deaf, then his steepness will be enough and in order that the car turned over. It will be more correct to go down a backing as it is offered in the item. "If in the course of rise...".

If after an engine stop the attempt of descent of the car from the hill a backing is not crowned with success, it is necessary to stop, cock the parking brake, to transfer transmission to the provision of P (AT) or on the 1st transfer (RKPP) and to kill the engine. Further it is necessary only to wait for the help. Go out of the car and get up so that it could not run over you at refusal of brakes.

Do not leave transmission in neutral situation at an exit from the car at all!

Remember that the models equipped with the transfer case of manual type at installation of its lever in neutral situation are not insured from swing even if transmission is included on transfer (RKPP) / established in the provision of P (AT). If you are going to get out of the car, without fail cock the parking brake, establish transmission on transfer / transfer to situation P and choose one of operating modes of the transfer case.

Descent

Excessive use of brakes at the movement downhill can lead to failure of brake mechanisms owing to an overheat and, as a result, to loss of management! Avoid use without special need of brakes, control speed the engine, having transferred transmission to the lowest transfer.

At the movement down from the hill on the cross-country terrain besides try to estimate the steepness of a slope, character of a covering and existence of obstacles.

Having made the decision on a possibility of descent, try to move directly down, having included the lowest transfer. at the same time there will be a car will be stopped by the engine that partly will facilitate the driver's task. Move slowly, trying not to lose control.

Avoid changes of speed and the direction of the movement, try not to deploy the car across a slope. Remember that the bias can be quite safe for the movement on it strictly down and in too time sufficient for a turning of the car moving across it.

Do not move a setup down at all, having switched AT to situation N, or with having squeezed out a pedal of coupling (RKPP). At the same time the main loading is necessary on brake mechanisms which can easily fail as a result of an overheat.

If during descent there is an engine stop that generally speaking is improbable, stop the car, having squeezed out a pedal of a foot brake, then cock parking. Switch transmission to the provision of P (AT) / to neutral transfer (RKPP) and, without releasing a brake, start the engine. Now include the lowest transfer, release brakes and continue the movement. If it is not possible to start the engine, it is necessary to resort to assistance.

The movement across a slope

In the course of the movement on the cross-country terrain it is almost impossible to avoid movements across a slope.

Whenever possible try to avoid such movements in view of repeated decrease in stability of the car and increase in load of the wheels located lower than the level.

At a loose surface of a slope the car can easily begin to slide on it sideways, yet will not turn over, упершись in firmer obstacle (a stone, a root, etc.).

Remember that arrival by the top wheels on a firm obstacle or hit lower in the hidden hole can be led to a car turning also.

If the car began to slide off on a slope sideways, try to restore control for the movement, having turned the operated wheels down descent. However it will be most correct not to allow such situations. Be not afraid to waste time for a pedestrian sortie for the purpose of the choice of an optimum route.

If the engine becomes deaf during the movement across a slope, do not get out of it through the doors located at the lower level at all. To examine a slope below a point of location of your car, leave a possible trajectory of its falling aside.

Movement on dirt, sand, snow or ice

The movement on the frozen reservoirs is dangerous in view of a high probability of hit in an ice-hole or on the ice weakened by a current!

At the movement on dirt, a loose covering, deep snow or ice coupling of wheels with the road considerably decreases. At the same time the possibility of bystry dispersal and braking is lost and maneuverability of the car decreases.

It will be most correct to move on such coverings on low gears - than dirt is deeper, especially low transfer should be chosen. Avoid stops during the movement on really deep to dirt, snow or sand - start-off from the place can be impossible owing to pro-slipping.

At the movement on drift sand of a wheel deeply roll in it that makes noticeable impact on controllability of the car. It will be reasonable to weaken slightly pressure of a rating of tires - it will facilitate a task and will increase coupling of wheels with the road.

Dense snow and ice in the maximum degree weaken coupling of wheels of the car with the road. On such coverings the easiest to lose control of management of the car. If the surface of ice in addition is moistened, then acceleration of the car becomes almost impossible owing to the strongest pro-slipping of wheels and can lead to loss of management and a drift of the car.

Crossing through water barriers

Fording through a current is dangerous in view of danger of loss of coupling of wheels with a bottom owing to washing away of soil from under them by a current!

First of all it is necessary to estimate crossing depth. If water level reaches naves, hides bridges and an exhaust pipe, it is better to refuse a crossing at once.

On deep water it is the best of all to move slowly that splashes and the running wave did not get on components of system of ignition. Can also lead to a stop of the engine immersion under water of a cut of an exhaust pipe then start of the engine becomes almost impossible. Do not forget also that moistening of frictional surfaces of brake mechanisms leads to temporary refusal of the last.

Arrival on the water poured оп the surfaces of the road in the form of a pool at great speed can lead to "emerging" of the car and loss of management. Avoid such troubles.

Return from the cross-country terrain on the route

Clear the bottom of the car and components of its suspension bracket of the stuck to them dirt and foreign objects. Existence of garbage on a surface of components of system of production of the fulfilled gases is fraught with its ignition.

After the movement on dirt and sand it is necessary to examine and to carefully clear frictional overlays of brake blocks / boots.

Examine components of a body, a suspension bracket and system of production of the fulfilled gases on existence of signs of damages. Check brake and fuel lines for existence of signs of leaks.

At frequent use of the car for the movement on the cross-country terrain it is necessary to reduce several intervals between performing procedures of routine maintenance (see the Head Nastroyki and routine maintenance).